Islamic Family Law Reform: Early Marriage and Criminalization (A Comparative Study of Legal Law in Indonesia and Pakistan)

Fatum Abubakar

Abstract


In this paper I want to compare of legal law in Indonesia and Pakistan about early marriage. In Indonesia, marriage law No. 1/ 1974 explained that the limit of age of marriage is sixteen (16) years for women and nineteen (19) years for men. In Pakistan, after the 1961 MFLO amendment, Pakistan established the minimum age of marriage under the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, is eighteen (18) years for men and sixteen (16) years for women. In addition to Law No. 1 of 1974, in Indonesia, the KHI is clearly repeating Article 15 Paragraph (2), for candidates who have not reached the age of 21 years, they must obtain permission as provided in Article 6 Paragraph (2), (3), (4), and (5) of Law No. 1 year 1974. Otherwise, in Indonesia this regulation is slower than other perversions country that I mention. The questions in this paper are; first, why does the legislation of Indonesia provides dispensation of marriage in the Court for prospective couples under the age of marriage? Second, why does Pakistan's legislation give prison sanctions and penalties for married couples under the age of marriage? Thirdly, why does the legislation of Indonesia and Pakistan implement different determination of law for early marriage? The conclusion; if both prospective brides are still below the minimum age for marriage, the parents of the two brides-to-be may submit a marriage dispensation in a religious court. Dispensation of this marriage is regulated in Minister of Religious Affairs Regulation No. 3 year 1975, specifically for people who are Moslems. This matter the marriage law also provides an outlet as a solution if the minimum age requirement is not met. Otherwise, In Pakistan, Historically; the marriage of children is in conflict between those who feel established and those who want change by reforming their family law. So, MFLO 1961 came out of the outcome of the change of the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 to sanction marriage with fines and imprisonment for married couples who are married under the minimum age set for marriage. Even sanctions are given for parents, guardian, and marriage organizers as well as even more than the sanctions given to his son. Even if the renewal of Islamic law in the Indonesia have been done. Indonesia is somewhat late in doing Islamic law reform than Pakistan.

Keywords


islamic family law, early marriage

Full Text:

PDF

References


A Mukti Arto, Prakter Perkara Perdata pada Pengadilan Agama, (Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar, 1998)

Agus Moh. Najib, Pengembangan Metodologi Fikih Indonesia dan Konstribusinya bagi Pembentukan Hukum Nasional, Cet. I, (Jakarta : Kementerian Agama RI, 2011)

Amir Syarifuddin, Pembaharuan Pemikiran Dalam Hukum Islam, (Padang: Angkasa Raya, 1990)

Darji Darmodiharjo & Shidarta, Pokok-Pokok Filsafat: Apa dan Bagaimana Filsafat Hukum Indonesia (Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2004)

David Pearl & Wemermenski, Muslim Family Law, edisi 3 (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1998)

David Pearl, “Three Decades of Executive, Legislative And Judicial Amendments To Islamic Familv Law In Pakistan”, ; Chibli Mallat & Jane Connors, Islamic Family Law (London: Graham & Trotman, 1989)

Dawoud El Alami dan Doreen Hincliffe, Islamic Marriage and Divorce Laws of Arab World, (London : Kluwer Law International)

Dewi Candraningrum, Anita Dhewy & Andi Misbahul Pratiwi, Takut akan Zina, Pendidikan Rendah, dan Kemiskinan: Status Anak Perempuan dalam Pernikahan Anak di Sukabumi Jawa Barat, Jurnal Perempuan, vol .21, 2016

Euis Nuelaelawati and Ratno Lukito (ed), Law and Islamization; The Case of Indonesia in Making and Intrepreting Rules in Indonesia: Islamic Family Law and its Actual Practises of Religious Courts, (Yogyakarta : SUKA Press, 2014)

Euis Nurlaelawati, Modernizatin, Tradition, and Identity : The Kompilasi Hukum Islam and Legal Practices of the Indonesian Court, (Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press, 2010)

Gavin W. Jones and Bina Gubhaju, Trend in age at marriage in the Provinces of Indonesia, Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore, June 2008

Ghufron A. Mas’adi, Pemikiran Fazlur Rahman tentang Metodologi Pembaharuan Hukum Islam, Ed. 2, (Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada, 1998)

Inpres No. 1 Tahun 1991 tentang Kompilasi Hukum Islam

Jeffrie G. Murphy dan Jules L. Coelman, The Philosophy of Law an Introduction of Jurisprudence (San Francisco&London: Westview Press, 1990), 72-74; lihat juga Cristoper Berry Gray (ed.), The Philosophy of Law an Encyclopedia, Vol. I, (Grland Publishing, Inc., 1999)

John L. Esposito (ed), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (Ttp.: Oxford University Press, 1995).

John L. Esposito, Women in Muslim family Law, (Syracuse : Syracuse University Press, 1982).

John. L. Esposito, “Reform of lstamic Law : The Changing Status of Women and The Family”, dalam John Donohue (ed), lslam in Transition Muslim Perspectipes, (New York : Oxford University Press, 1982)

Keynote Speaker Menteri Agama Ri Pada Acara Peluncuran Dan Bedah Buku Kontroversi Revisi Kompilasi Hukum Islam (Islamic Law Compilation) in Perspektif Pembaharuan hukum Islam di Indonesia, Work of Prof.Dr.Huzaemah Tahido Yanggo, tanggal 14 februari 2005 di Jakarta

Khoiruddin Nasution, Hukum Perdata (Keluarga) Islam Indonesia dan Perbandingan Hukum Perkawinan di Dunia Muslim; Studi Sejarah, Metode Pembaruan, dan Materi dan Status Perempuan dalam Perundang-undangan Perkawinan Muslim, (Yogyakart : Tazzafa, 2009)

Khoiruddin Nasution, Status Wanita di Asia Tenggara, Studi terhadap Perundang-undangan Perkawinan Muslim Kontemporer di Indonesia dan Malaysia, (Jakarta : INIS, 2002).

Lili Rasjidi, Dasar-Dasar Filsafat Hukum (Bandung: PT. Citra Aditya Bakti, 1993)

Lawrence M. Friedman, The Legal System: A Social Science Perspektive, (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1975)

M. Atho Mudzhar, Hukum Keluarga Di Pakistan(Antara Islamisasi Dan Tekanan Adat), Jurnal Al-‘Adalah Vol. XII, No. 1 Juni 2014

Abu Yasid, Islam Akomodatif: Rekonstruksi Pemahaman Islam sebagai Agama Universal (Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2004)

N.J. Coulson, succession in the Muslim Family, (London : Cambridge University Press, 1971)

Nadya Haider, Islamic Legal Reform: The Case of Pakistan and Family Law , Volume 12 Issue 2, Yale Journal of Law & Feminism Article 52000

Ratno Lukito, Islamic Law And Adat Encounter: The Experience Of Indonesia : A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partiaI fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Islamic Studies Institute of Islamic Studies McGiH University Montreal Canada

Rubya Mehdi, The Islamization of the Law in Pakistan, (UK: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Curzon Press, 1994)

Sahreen Malik Bhanji and Neelam Saleem Punjani, Open Access Mini Review Determinants of Child (Early) Marriages among Young Girls- A Public Health Issue Volume 3, Issue 3, Jornal Women’s Health Care 2014

Siti Musdah Mulia. Islam dan Inspirasi Kesetaraan Gender, (Yogyakarta: Kibar Press, 2006)

Soerjono Soekanto, Pokok-Pokok Sosiologi Hukum, Ed 12, (Jakarta : Raja grafindo Persada, 2002)

Soetandyo Wignjosoebroto, Dari Hukum Kolonial Ke Hukum Nasional, Suatu Kajian Tentang Dinamika Sosial-Politik Dalam Perkembangan Hukum Selama Satu Setengah Abad di Indonesia (1840-1990), (Jakarta Rajawali Pers: 1994)

Sofia Naveed and Khalid Manzoor Butt, Causes and Consequences of Child Marriages in South Asia: Pakistan’s Perspective , (Lahore : Government College University). South Asian Studies A Research Journal of South Asian Studies Vol. 30, No.2, July – December 2015

Tahir Mahmood, Family Law Reform in The Muslim World, (New Delh: The Indian Law Institute, 1972).

Tahir Mahmood, Personal Law in Islamic Countries: History, Text and Analysis, (New Delhi: Academy of Law and Religion New Delhi), Second Revised Edition

Taufik Adnan Amal, Islam dan Tantangan Modernitas Studi atas Pemikiran Hukum Fazlur Rahman, cet vi, (Bandung : Mizan, 1996)

Taufîq al-Thawîl, Falsafah al-Akhlâq: Nasy'atuhâ wa Tathawwuruhâ, cet. Ke-4 (Kairo: Dâr al-Nahdhah al-'Arabiyah, 1979).

TIM PUG (Pengarus Utamaan Gender), Depag, Pembaharuan Hukum Islam : Counter Legal Draf Kompilasi Hukum Islam, (Jakarta; 2004).

Ziauddin Sardar, Masa Depan Islam (terj), Romhani Astuti, (Bandung : Pustaka, 1985)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22515/al-ahkam.v4i2.1667

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Al-Ahkam: Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum; Print ISSN: 2527-8169 | Online ISSN (e-ISSN): 2527-8150  

Published by: Fakultas Syari'ah Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Surakarta Jl. Pandawa, Pucangan, Kartasura, Central Java, Indonesia, 57168. Phone: +62271-781516, Website: http://www.iain-surakarta.ac.id/

 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License