AHOK AND BLASPHEMY CASE IN KOMPAS AND REPUBLIKA ONLINE MEDIA: A CLASH OF IDEOLOGIES

Muhammad Beni Saputra* - 

Ahok's speech in Kepulauan Seribu was viral on the internet. The speech put the ethnic Chinese Christian Jakarta governor into a national spotlight. Mass media then sought to interpret Ahok's speech by framing its content. Using Robert Entman's framing theory, this paper analyzes online media framing of Republika and Kompas on Ahok and a blasphemy case involving him. Content analysis of the news articles published by the two online media shows that the framing of Ahok and the blasphemy case differ in reporting and focus. Kompas Online mostly reported positive news about Ahok, while Republika Online demonstrated a different pattern of framing. On the blasphemy case, Kompas Online focused on defense, whereas Republika Online emphasized that Ahok had insulted Islam and had to be jailed. These differences are manifestations of an ideological clash between Kompas and Republika.

Keywords : Ahok; blasphemy; Kompas and Republika; media framing

  1. Aelst, P., Strömbäck, J., Aalberg, T., Esser, F., Vreese, C., Matthes, J., Hopmann, D., Salgado, S., Hubé, N., Stępińska, A., Papathanassopoulos, S., Berganza, R., Legnante, G., Reinemann, C., Sheafer, T., & Stanyer, J. (2017). Political Communication in A High-choice Media Environment: A Challenge for Democracy? Annals of the International Communication Association, 41(1), 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2017.1288551
  2. Alexa. (2019). Top Sites in Indonesia. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from alexa.com website: https://www.alexa.com/topsites/countries/ID
  3. Alonso, M. O. (2014). The Triangle Formed by Framing, Agenda-setting and Metacoverage. Disertaciones: Anuario Electrónico de Estudios En Comunicación Social, 7(1), 41–66. https://doi.org/10.12804/disertaciones.v7i1.4423
  4. Althusser, L. (2006). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation). In A. Sharma & A. Gupta (Eds.), The Anthropology of the State: A Reader (Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 86–98). Hoboken, New Jersey, United States: Blackwell Publishing.
  5. Anggraeni, D. (2018). Analisis Framing Entman Berita Tata Kelola Pangan di Media Online. Jurnal The Messenger, 10(1), 113–114. https://doi.org/http:/10.26623/themessenger.v10i1.711
  6. Aprianti, R. (2014). Melihat Objektifitas Media Massa Terhadap Pernyataan Paus Benedictus XVI. Jurnal Dakwah, 15(2), 357–381. https://doi.org/10.14421/jd.2014.15207
  7. Azpíroz, M. L. (2014). Framing and Political Discourse Analysis: Bush’s Trip to Europe in 2005. Observatorio, 8(3), 75–96. https://doi.org/10.7458/obs832014763
  8. BBC. (2018). Orang Terkaya Indonesia 2018: Siapa Saja dan Dari Mana Sumbernya? Retrieved February 3, 2019, from bbc.com website: https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/trensosial-46549111
  9. Borah, P. (2011). Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature. Journal of Communication, 61, 246–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01539.x
  10. Brugman, B. C., & Burgers, C. (2018). Political Framing Across Disciplines: Evidence from 21st-Century Experiments. Research and Politics, 5(2), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/205316801878337
  11. Castells, M. (2013). Communication Power. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  12. Chong, D., Druckman., & James, N. (2007). Framing Theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 103-126. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054
  13. Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2013). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California, United States: SAGE Publications.
  14. Edhlund, B., & McDougall, A. (2019). NVivo 12 Essentials. Morrisville, North Carolina, United States: Lulu.com.
  15. Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x.
  16. Entman, R. M. (2004). Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and US Foreign Policy. Chicago, Illinois, United States: University of Chicago Press.
  17. Entman, R. M. (2007). Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/ j.1460-2466.2006.00336.x
  18. Entman, Robert M., & Usher, N. (2018). Framing in a Fractured Democracy: Impacts of Digital Technology on Ideology, Power and Cascading Network Activation. Journal of Communication, 68(2), 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqx019.
  19. Farhadian, C. E. (2009). Christianity, Islam and Nationalism in Indonesia. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  20. Ferry, L. (2002). Man Made God: The Meaning of Life. Chicago, Illinois, United States: University of Chicago Press.
  21. Galih, B. (2016). Pernyataan Pastor Oudejans yang Mengubah Pandangan Seorang Jakob Oetama. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from www.youtube.com website: https://www.tribunnews.com/nasional/2016/09/27/pernyataan-pastor-oudejans-yang-mengubah-pandangan-seorang-jakob-oetama
  22. Gitlin, T. (2003). The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley, California, United States: University of California Press.
  23. Goldin, J., & Reck, D. (2019). Revealed Preference Analysis with Framing Effects. Journal of Political Econom, 128(7). https://doi.org/10.1086/706860
  24. Gronemeyer, M. E., & Porath, W. (2017). Framing Political News in the Chilean Press: The persistence of the Conflict Frame. International Journal of Communication, 11, 2940–2963.
  25. Hänggli, R., & Kriesi, H. (2010). Political Framing Strategies and Their Impact on Media Framing in a Swiss Direct-Democratic Campaign. Political Communication, 27(2), 141–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584600903501484
  26. Hefner, R. W. (1997). Print Islam: Mass Media and Ideological Rivalries among Indonesian Muslims. Language and Media, 64, 77-103. https://doi.org/10.2307/3351436.
  27. Hefner, R. W., & Horvatich, P. (Eds.). (1997). Islam in an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia. Honolulu, Hawai: University of Hawaii Press.
  28. Hefner, Robert W. (1993). Islam, State, and Civil Society: ICMI and the Struggle for the Indonesian Middle Class. Indonesia, 56, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/3351197
  29. Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2010). Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York, New York, United States: Random House.
  30. Hill, D. T. (1994). The Press in New Order Indonesia. Sheffield, United Kingdom, London, United Kingdom: Equinox Publ.
  31. Hoon, C.-Y. (2016). Religious Aspirations among Urban Christians in Contemporary Indonesia. International Sociology, 31(4), 413–431. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580916643853.
  32. Huntington, S. (2011). The Clash of Civilizations and The Remaking of World Order. New York, New York, United States: Simon & Schuster.
  33. Jackson, K., & Bazeley, P. (2019). Qualitative Data Analysis with Nvivo. Thousand Oaks, California, United States: SAGE Publications Limited.
  34. Ilham. (2017). Mengungkap Alasan Ahok-Djarot Menang Mutlak di Dua TPS. Republika Online. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from republika.co.id website: http://republika.co.id/berita/nasional/politik/17/02/17/olhwm3361-mengungkap-alasan-ahokdjarot-menang-mutlak-di-dua-tps
  35. Indra K, Briliant, & Suprihartini, T. (2017). Analisis Framing dalam Kasus Kontroversi Ahok di dalam Pilkada DKI Jakarta 2017-2022 di dalam Media Online Kompas.com dan Republika.co.id. Interaksi Online, 5(3), 1–13. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/interaksi-online/article/view/16875
  36. Kanas, A., Scheepers, P., & Sterkens, C. (2015). Interreligious contact, perceived group threat, and perceived discrimination: Predicting negative attitudes among religious minorities and majorities in Indonesia. Social Psychology Quarterly, 78(2), 102–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272514564790.
  37. Keller, A. (2009). Tantangan dari Dalam: Otonomi Redaksi di 4 Media Cetak Nasional: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika [Challenge from inside: Editorial Autonomy at 4 National Print Media: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika]. Jakarta: FES Indonesia Office.
  38. Khadafi, A. (2017). Faktor Agama Menentukan Kemenangan Anies-Sandiaga. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from www.tirto.id website: https://tirto.id/faktor-agama-menentukan-kemenangan-anies-sandiaga-cm79
  39. Kompas. (2016). VIK - The Legacy 85 Tahun Jakob Oetama. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from vik.kompas.com website: https://vik.kompas.com/the-legacy-jakob-oetama/
  40. Lim, M. (2017). Freedom to hate: social media, algorithmic enclaves, and the rise of tribal nationalism in Indonesia. Critical Asian Studies, 49(3), 411–427. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2017.1341188
  41. Lim, M., & Arizona, A. (2011). Democratization & Corporatization of Media in Indonesia. Arizona: Arizona State University.
  42. Marx, K., & Engels, F. (1972). The German Ideology (Vol. 1). New York, New York, United States: International Publishers Co.
  43. Matthes, J. (2012). Framing Politics: an Integrative Approach. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(3), 247 –259. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764211426324
  44. Mayasari, S. (2017). Konstruksi Media Terhadap Berita Kasus Penistaan Agama Oleh Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok): Analisis Framing Pada Surat Kabar Kompas dan Republik. Jurnal Komunikasi, 8(2), 8–18. https://doi.org/10.31294/jkom.v8i2.2528
  45. McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. Thousand Oaks, California, United States: SAGE Publications.
  46. Media, M. (2019). Mahaka Media - Business Unit. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from mahamedia.com website: https://mahakamedia.com/tentang_kami/unit_bisnis
  47. Mujiburrahman. (2006). Feeling Threatened: Muslim-Christian Relations in Indonesia’s New Order. Nieuwe Prinsengracht, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.
  48. Muslim, M. (2013). Konstruksi Media Tentang Serangan Israel Terhadap Libanon (Analisis Framing Terhadap Berita Tentang Peperangan Antara Israel Dan Libanon Dalam Surat Kabar Kompas Dan Republika). Jurnal Studi Komunikasi Dan Media, 17(1), 75–92. https://doi.org/10.17933/jskm.2013.170104
  49. Nautico, T. (2018). Construction of the Republika Portal Against the Ahok Blasphemy Case Verdict. 2nd ICSSED 2018, 131.
  50. Nurhaliza, H., & Tanto, T. (2019). Representation of Indonesia’s Judiciary of Ahok’s Blasphemy Verdict in The New York Times Analysis (A Critical Discourse). [email protected] Ta: A Binnual Publication On The Study Of Language And Literature, 21(2), 68-74.
  51. Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to News Discourse. Political Communication, 10(1), 55–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.1993.9962963
  52. Purwadi, D. (2017). Belajar dari Etnis Cina dan Non-Muslim dalam Pilkada DKI. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from republika.co.id website: http://republika.co.id/berita/jurnalisme-warga/wacana/17/02/18/olkd8i257-belajar-dari-etnis-cina-dan-nonmuslim-dalam-pilkada-dki
  53. Raharjo, B. (2017). Pengalaman Republika, Ini Tantangan Mengelola Media Muslim. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from republika.co.id website: http://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/umum/17/11/18/ozly8f415-pengalaman-republika-ini-tantangan-mengelola-media-muslim
  54. Reily, M. (2017). Nielsen: Pembaca Media Digital Sudah Lampaui Media Cetak. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from katadata.co.id website: https://katadata.co.id/berita/2017/12/07/nielsen-pembaca-media-digital-sudah-lampaui-media-cetak
  55. Riana, F. (2016). Survei LSI: Ahok Bisa Kalah Karena Isu Agama. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from tempo.co website: https://nasional.tempo.co/read/810478/survei-lsi-ahok-bisa-kalah-karena-isu-agama/full&view=ok.
  56. RMOL. (2017). Ketum Pemuda Muhammadiyah Puji Soliditas Kaum Kristiani Dan Etnis Cina Dukung Ahok. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from rmol.com website: http://politik.rmol.co/read/2017/02/17/280785/Ketum-Pemuda-Muhammadiyah-Puji-Soliditas-Kaum-Kristiani-Dan-Etnis-Cina-Dukung-Ahok-
  57. Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects Approach: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique. Communications, 29(4), 401–428. https://doi.org/10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401.
  58. Scheufele, D. A. (1999). Framing as a Theory of Media Effects. Journal of Communication, 49(1), 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x
  59. Scheufele, D. A., & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00326.x.
  60. Sidik, F. (2017). Objectivity of republika. co. id in Reporting the Trial Court of Religion Blasphemy with Ahok as Defendant. Borderless Communities & Nations with Borders, 959.
  61. Sobari, T., & Ramdani, D. (2019). Framing Religious Blasphemy Issues By the Governor of DKI Basuki Tjahaja Purnama in the Contestation of Governor Election DKI. In International Conference on Interdisciplinary Language, Literature and Education (ICILLE 2018), April. https://doi.org/10.2991/icille-18.2019.88
  62. Steele, J. E. (2018). Mediating Islam: cosmopolitan journalisms in Muslim Southeast Asia. Seattle, Washington, United States: University of Washington Press
  63. Suganda, D., Sunarni, N., & Darmayanti, N. (2018). News of Islamic Blasphemy onthe Websites of Kompas and Republika: A Critical Discourse Analysis. ISLLE 2017, The 1st International Seminar on Language, Literature and Education, KnE Social Sciences, 1(302–317). https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i9.2692
  64. Sumartono, S. (2005). Objektivitas Konflik Ambon Pada Pemberitaan Kompas dan Republika. Jurnal Komunikologi (Ilmu Komunikasi), 2(2).
  65. Tamburaka, A. (2013). Literasi Media: Cerdas Bermedia Khalayak Media Massa. Depok: Rajagrafindo Persada.
  66. Tapsell, R. (2012a). Old Tricks in a New Era: Self-Censorship in Indonesian Journalism. Asian Studies Review, 36(2), 227–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/10357823.2012.685926
  67. Tapsell, R. (2012b). Politics and the Press in Indonesia. Media Asia, 39(2), 109–116. https://doi.org/01296612.2012.11689925
  68. Tapsell, R. (2015). Platform Convergence in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities for Media Freedom. Convergence, 21(2), 182–197. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856514531527
  69. Wahid, S. W., & Pratiwi, R. Z. B. (2018). The Construction of Tionghoa Ethnic Stereotype in Ngenest Movie. Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi, 1(2), 54–66. https://doi.org/10.33005/jkom.v0i2.24
  70. Wibiyanto, A., & Hastiningsih, W. T. (2019). Pengelolaan Isu Pemilihan Umum Presiden Republik Indonesia Tahun 2019 pada Media di Jawa Tengah. Al-Balagh: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Komunikasi, 4(2), 263–292. https://doi.org/10.22515/balagh.v4i2.1832
  71. Wijayanto. (2017). Fearing the Majority: Catholic Media in Muslim Indonesia. Media Asia, 44(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/01296612.2017.1374319
  72. Wijayanto, W. (2019). Between fear and power: Kompas, Indonesia’s most influential daily newspaper, 1965-2010 [PhD Thesis].
  73. Winters, J. A. (2013). Oligarchy and Democracy in Indonesia. Indonesia, 96(1), 11–33. https://doi.org/10.5728/indonesia.96.0099
  74. Wolton, S. (2019). Are Biased Media Bad for Democracy? American Journal of Political Science, 63(3), 548-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12424
  75. Wu, T. (2018). Is the First Amendment Obsolete. Mich. L. Rev., 117, 547.
  76. Yani, B. (2002). Reporting the Maluku Sectarian Conflict: The Politics of Editorship in Kompas and Republika Dailies. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag

Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah
Institut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia
Collaborate with APDI (Asosiasi Profesi Dakwah Indonesia)
Jln. Pandawa No. 1, Pucangan, Kartasura, Central Java, Indonesia, 57168
Phone: +62271-781516
Website: http://iain-surakarta.ac.id/
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

ISSN: 2527-5704 (Print)
ISSN: 2527-5682 (Online)
DOI : 10.22515/balagh

This ejournal system and it's contents licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here