Jalīl al-Kalām and Daqīq al-Kalām according to Imāmī Shiʻites before the Beginning of the Major Occultation
This study would serve as sequel to the views of the Imāmī theologian Hishām bin al-Ḥakam on Jalīl al-Kalām and Daqīq al-Kalām by explaining the theological views of Zurārah bin Aʻyun, Abū Jaʻfar al-Aḥwal, al-Faḍl ibn Shāzān and Banū Nūbakht; it will focus on their known writings, explicating their available theological views as far as possible, on the basis of Sunni and Shi’ite sources in the context of the history of theology. The objective behind that is to explain the theological trends that emerged in the history of the Twelver Imamite community, their connections; this would first of all provide knowledge of the intellectual foundations of the Twelver theology, which reached its pinnacle at the hands of the theologians of the fifth century AH beginning with Shaykh al-Mufīd bin Muḥammad bin al-Nuʻmān al-ʻAkbarī al-Baghdādī. Secondly, this study would provide for an understanding of the relational basis between the Twelver and the Mutazilite theological thought. I think that it is the result of a mutual cross-fertilization on the one hand, while on the other since they both derive from the same sources, they lead to similar results. It is not a case of Shi’ite subservience to a predominant Mutazilite influence because the Twelver Shi’ite theologian was conscious of his requirements in support of his doctrine, which revolves around the issue of the Imāmah in Jalīl al-Kalām and Daqīq al-Kalām alike. In addition, this study will also identify the real origins of the idea of limiting the imamate to twelve imams, ending with the consideration of the early Imamite scholars through which they established their arguments against their opponents in their writings and debates. This is all the more important since the titles of the Shi’ite Imāmī writings and from what is quoted in their debates on the issue of Imamate, do not point to the imamate of only twelve imams, as the history of the Imāmī Thought depicts and which starts with the period of the Minor Occultation, which lasted about 70 years from 260 to 329 AH.
Keywords: Imāmī Shiʻites, Jalīl al-Kalām, Daqīq al-Kalām, Major Occultation
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