Beyond the Extremism of Radical Muslim Groups: A Socio-Historical Study
Muslim terrorist group is a contrast issue, they are the one who openly opposes the U.S. Oppression, but on another side, they are blamed for being a terrorist. The story started with oppression on Muslim countries everywhere: Afghanistan was invaded by USSR army, then 1991, Iraq also was attacked as a response call from the US to Kuwaiti aid request, then in 2001, Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the U.S., then the raid over Taliban and all its organization in Pakistan and Afghanistan, the military operation in Iraq, 2003, and daily killing upon Palestinian since 1967 with no ending etc. So, the counter upon oppression rises, but unfortunately those who struggled to defend Muslim territories against U.S. invasion are called as a “terrorist”. Once upon a time in 2000, Bali was the most destined of tourism but unexpectedly, a big tragedy happened in Indonesia with the bomb explosion in Bali Island and killed 202 people, most of the victims were foreign tourists. The result of investigations pointed to “Jemaah Islamiyah” as an actor of that incident. The national and International news media posted that “Jamaah Islamiyah” did a terror on the basis of jihad against America and its allies who invaded a Muslim country, but unfortunately, the victims were civilians who have nonsense affiliated with politics.
Terrorist, Extremism, and Radical Muslim Group
Abas, Nasir. 2009. Membongkar jamaah Islamiyah : pengakuan mantan ketua JI. Jakarta: Abdika Press.
Abdullah, K., Salleh, M.A. 2015. Conceptualizing Jihad Among Southeast Asia's Radical Salafi Movements. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 14 (42).
Adisaputra, A., Muhammad, F., & Sulistyo, H. 2006. Imam Samudra berjihad. Jakarta: PTIK. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=D3_aAAAAMAAJ
Aydin, Y Nebhan. 2017. Muslim as Victims of Security Dilemma in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 37 (3), pp. 245-266.
Conboy, K. 2004. Intel : inside Indonesia’s intelligence service. Jakarta [u.a.]: Equinox Publ.
Darwich, M. 2017. Creating the Enemy, Constructing the Threat: the Diffusion of Repression Against the Muslim Brotherhood in the Middle East. Democratization 24 (7), pp. 1289-1306.
Fauzi, I. A. 2008. “Agama dan terorisme Bunuh diri: Agar bertemu bidadari di Surga?” Madina Magazine.
Ghaffari, S. 2009. Baluchistan's Rising Militancy. Middle East Report 39 (250), pp. 40-43.
Haron, Z., Hussin, N. 2013. A Study of the Salafi Jihadist Doctrine and the Interpretation of Jihad by Al Jama'ah Al Islamiyah. Kemanusiaan 20 (2), pp. 15-37.
Hassan, G. 2009. America’s War with Muslim Nations. Countercurrents Journal.
Hassan, M. 2017. South-South Migration and Security Risks: Political Islam and Violent Extrimism in the Shadow of Globalisation in Bangladesh. India Quarterly 73 (3), pp. 312-326.
Indonesia. 1964. Why Indonesia opposes British-made “Malaysia.”. Indonesia: [Govt. Print. Off.].
Jurnalis, J., Budiarti, R. T., & Shinta, S. A. 2011. Jalan jihad sang dokter. Jakarta: Qanita.
Livingstone, David and Bleher, S. M. 2010. Surrendering IslamThe subversion of Muslim politics throughout history until the present day.
Livingstone, D. n.d.. A terrorism and illuminati a three thousand year century. Booksurge LLC.
Lowry, R. S. 2008. The Gulf War chronicles : a military history of the first war with Iraq. New York: iUniverse Star.
Mahoney, J. 2017. The Politics of Religious Freedom: Liberalism and Toleration in Muslim-Majority States. Philosophy and Social Criticism 43 (6), pp. 551-570.
Pusat Studi dan Pengembangan Informasi (Partai Bulan Bintang), P. 1998. Tanjung Priok berdarah : tanggung jawab siapa? ; kumpulan fakta dan data. Jakarta: Gema Insani.
Qamar, Z. n.d.. Understanding the roots and role models of Islamic extremism. Retrieved from http://www.sunnah.org/articles/Wahhabiarticleedit.htm
Snow, D.A., Byrd, S.C. 2007. Ideology, Framing Processes, and Islamic Terrorist Movements. Mobilization 12 (2), pp. 119-136.
Solahuddin. 2011. NII Sampai JI: Salafy Jihadisme di Indonesia. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu.
Suara Hidayatullah. 2008. Magazine, Suara Hidayatullah. Suara Hidayatullah Magazine, 33.
Tempo. 2010. Tempo Magazine. Volume 16, 26.
Thobani, S. 2017. The Religious-Secular Interface and Representations of Islam in Phenomenological Religious Education. Oxford Review of Education 43 (5), pp. 612-625.
Unger, C. 2004. House of bush, house of saud: the secret relationship between the world’s two most powerful dynasties. Scribner Press.
Westphal, J. 2017. Violence in the Name of God? A Framing Processes Approach to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Social Movement Studies, pp.1-16.
Yusuf, A., & Safari, M. 2003. Perang Iraq-AS : hegemoni baru AS di Timur Tengah dan dampak globalnya. Jakarta: Kerjasama antara COMES [dengan] Jim Malaysia.
Article StatisticAbstract view : 192 times
PDF views : 83 times
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
How To Cite This :
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.