The 11 September Attacks and the Fourth Wave 2.0 of International Terrorism
The 11 September attacks in 2001 were one of the most shocking incidents within the post-Cold War era. Moreover, its location which happened in the United States can also be translated as a symbolic warning for the liberal world order, signifying that security remains a salient topic even after the “End of History” postulated by Fukuyama. This article examines whether the 11 September attacks has changed the course of international relations. In so doing, I attempt to use “the waves of terrorism” as a framework to understand the development of different stages of terrorism. The method that I used was desk research based on sources such as official reports, previous studies on terrorism, and classic literature on international security. This article finds that the 11 September attack serves as a game-changer in international relations as it unveils the new face of the religious wave of. First, the attacks ignited a refined version of the religious wave by employing information technology, making it even more sporadic and unpredictable. Second, it reshapes international security by shifting away from the state-centric narrative, putting the terrorists as new international actors. Third, it has altered the security relations of the United States with other countries, creating new global polarisations.
Avriel, G. (2016). Terrorism 2.0: The Rise of the Civilitary Battlefield. Harv. Nat’l Sec. J. 7, 199–199.
Barkawi, T. (2004). On the Pedagogy of “Small Wars.” International Affairs 80, pp.19–37.
Buzan, B., and Hansen, L. (2009). The Evolution of International Security Studies. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Cerria, P. (2017). The prolonged religious wave of terrorism (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).
Cox, M., (2008). From the Cold War to the War on Terror, in Baylis, J., et.al. (eds). The Globalization of World Politics. Oxford University Press, New York, pp.72-86.
Dinh, V.D. (2001). Foreword–Freedom and Security after September 11. Harv. JL & Pub. Pol’y 25, 399.
Dudziak, M.L. (2011). How 9/11 Made “History.” OAH Magazine of History 25, 5–7. doi:10.1093/oahmag/oar019
Fukuyama, F. (1989). The End of History. National Interest, pp.1-27.
Giddens, A. (2003). Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. Taylor & Francis.
Gordon, P.H. (2001). NATO After 11 September. Survival 43, 89–106. doi:10.1080/00396330112331343145
Hill, F. (2001). Contributions of Central Asian natoins to the campaign against terrorism. Available from https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/contributions-of-central-asian-nations-to-the-campaign-against-terrorism/
Ikenberry, J.G. (2001). American Grand Strategy in the Age of Terror. Survival 43, 19–34. doi:10.1080/00396330112331343105
Institute of Economics and Peace (2015), Global Terrorism Index: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism, available from http://static.visionofhumanity.org/sites/default/files/2015%20Global%20Terrorism%20Index%20Report_2.pdf
Ishengoma, F.R. (2014). Online Social Networks and Terrorism 2.0 in Developing Countries. Available from https://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0531
Kay, S. (ed.) (2006). Global Security in the Twenty-First Century: The Quest for Power and the Search for Peace. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Keat, T. H., & Hamilton, L. (eds) (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. Washington DC. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.
Keohane, R.O. (1984). After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kunreuther, H., Michel-Kerjan, E. (2004). Policy Watch: Challenges for Terrorism Risk Insurance in the United States. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lemon, E. (2018). Assesing the terrorist threat in and from Central Asia. Available from https://voicesoncentralasia.org/assessing-the-terrorist-threat-in-and-from-central-asia/
MacAskill, E. (2014), Fivefold Increase in Terrorism Fatalities Since 9/11, Says Report, available from http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/nov/18/fivefold-increase-terrorism-fatalities-global-index
MacFarlane, S. Neil. "The United States and Regionalism in Central Asia." International Affairs80.3 (2004): 447-461.
Ranstorp, M. (2007). The Virtual Sanctuary of al-Qaeda and Terrorism in an Age of Globalization, in Eriksson, J. and Giacomello, G., (eds). International Relations and Security in the Digital Age. Routledge, London; New York
Rapoport, D. (2004). The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism, in Cronin, A. and Ludes J., (eds). Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy. Georgetown University Press; Washington DC
Rogers, P. (2013). Terrorism, in Williams, P.W. (ed). Security Studies: an Introduction. Routledge, New York, pp.221-234.
Stubbs, R. (2002). The Many Faces of Asian Security. Contemporary Southeast Asia 24(1), 178-179.
Weimann, G. (2004). How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet, available from https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/sr116.pdf
Weinberg, L., & Eubank, W. (2010). An end to the fourth wave of terrorism?. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(7), 594-602.