DINAMIKA PRASANGKA SOSIAL PENYEBARAN AGAMA TERHADAP PIHAK RUMAH KHALWAT OASIS SUNGAI KERIT

Musmuallim Musmuallim* -  Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
Oasis Sungai Kerit (OSK) is a hermitage or khalwat house as a place of worship rituals and prayer services for Catholics in Melung Village, Kedungbanteng, Banyumas. Its existence is considered to spread religion and cause unrest. This study elaborates on the dynamics of the emergence of prejudices against OSK managers and formulates suggestions for these problems through a phenomenological approach. Data collection is done by interviews and documentation that are arranged and presented descriptively. In this study it was concluded that 1) Prejudice of the spread of Catholicism by the OSK khalwat house was due to the categorization and ingroup-outgroups, 2) Prejudice also occurred because there were OSK khalwat house activities in accordance with prejudice, 3) Problems of licensing strengthened community rejection. Dialogue efforts have been made but not yet optimal. Therefore, it is necessary to reorganize the format of dialogue between various parties so that dialogue can take place openly and intensively so that prejudice can be reduced.

Keywords : Dialogue; Oasis Sungai Kerit; Prejudice; Spread of Religion

  1. Abrams, D. (2010). Processes of Prejudice: Theory, Evidence, and Intervention. In Equality and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from http://equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/56_processes_of_prejudice.doc
  2. Allport, G. W. (1967). The Religious Context of Prejudice. Pastoral Psychology, 18(5), 20–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01762402
  3. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 432–443. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021212
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York, USA: General Learning Cooperation.
  5. Baron, R. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2011). Social Psychology (13th Ed). London, UK: Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. Bensaid, B., & Tekke, M. (2018). Islam and Prejudice: Special Reference to Gordon W. Allport’s Contact Hypothesis. Kemanusiaan: The Asian Journal of Humanities, 25(1), 103–120. https://doi.org/10.21315/kajh2018.25.s1.6
  7. Brown, R. (2004). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. Malden, USA; Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.803723
  8. Burch-Brown, J., & Baker, W. (2016). Religion and Reducing Prejudice. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19(6), 784 –807. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430216629566
  9. Civalero, L., Alonso, D., & Brussino, S. (2019). Evaluation of the Prejudice Towards Immigrants: Argentine Adaptation of the Scale of Subtle and Blatant Prejudice. Ciencias Psicológicas, 13(1), 119–133. https://doi.org/10.22235/cp.v13i1.1814
  10. Cohrs, J. C., & Duckitt, J. (2012). Prejudice, Types and Origins of. In Daniel J. Christie (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (1st Ed). Malden, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
  11. Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. M. (2010). Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination: Theoretical and Empirical Overview. In J. F. Dovidio, V. M. Esses, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (pp. 3–28). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446200919.n1
  12. Goddard, H. (2000). Menepis Standar Ganda: Membangun Saling Pengertian Muslim-Kristen (A. N. Zaman, Ed.). Yogyakarta: Qalam.
  13. Gribbins, T. P. (2013). The Effects of Religious Fundamentalism and Threat on Prejudice. University of Missouri-St. Louis.
  14. Halimatusa’diah. (2017). Dari Prasangka Hingga Diskriminasi: Menyoal Stigma Sesat dan Kekerasan Terhadap Ahmadiyah dalam Perspektif Komunikasi. Avant Garde, 5(1), 15–34. https://doi.org/10.36080/avg.v5i1.611
  15. Hall, D. L., Matz, D. C., & Wood, W. (2010). Why Don’t We Practice What We Preach? A Meta-Analytic Review of Religious Racism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 126–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352179
  16. Halperin, C. J. (1984). The Ideology of Silence: Prejudice and Pragmatism on the Medieval Religious Frontier. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(3), 442–466. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8497.1960.tb00853.x
  17. Herek, G. (1987). Religious Orientation and Prejudice: A Comparison of Racial and Sexual Attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13(1), 34–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167287131003
  18. Hernawan, W. (2017). Prasangka Sosial Dalam Pluralitas Keberagamaan di Kecamatan Cigugur Kabupaten Kuningan Jawa Barat. Sosiohumaniora, 19(1), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.24198/sosiohumaniora.v19i1.9543
  19. Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., & Danell, R. (2018). Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/23780231187631
  20. Hunsberger, B. (1995). Religion and Prejudice: The Role of Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 113–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1995.tb01326.x
  21. Hunsberger, B., & Jackson, L. M. (2005). Religion, Meaning, and Prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 807–826. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00433.x
  22. Jamil, A. (2015). Pelangi Agama di Ufuk Indonesia, Fakta dan Cerita Kerukunan Beragama. Jakarta: Pusat Kerukunan Umat Beragama Kementerian Agama RI.
  23. Kunst, J. R., Sadeghi, T., Tahir, H., Sam, D., & Thomsen, L. (2016). The Vicious Circle of Religious Prejudice: Islamophobia Makes the Acculturation Attitudes of Majority and Minority Members Clash. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46(2), 249–259. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2174
  24. Kuntowijoyo. (2018). Identitas Politik Umat Islam. Yogyakarta: IRCiSoD.
  25. Kusumowardhani, R. P. A., Fathurrohman, O., & Ahmad, A. (2013). Identitas Sosial, Fundamentalisme, dan Prasangka terhadap Pemeluk Agama yang Berbeda: Perspektif Psikologis. Harmoni, 12(1), 8–18.
  26. Laythe, B., Finkel, D. G., Bringle, R. G., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2002). Religious Fundamentalism as a Predictor of Prejudice: A Two-Component Model. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 623–635. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.00142
  27. Lestari, G. (2015). Bhinneka Tunggal Ika: Khasanah Multikultural Indonesia di Tengah Kehidupan SARA. Jurnal Pendidikan Pancasila Dan Kewarganegaraan, 28(1), 31–37. https://doi.org/10.17977/jppkn.v28i1.5437
  28. Lestari, P. (2013). Makna Simbolik Seni Begalan Bagi Pendidikan Etika Masyarakat. Harmonia - Journal of Arts Research and Education, 13(2), 157–167. https://doi.org/10.15294/harmonia.v13i2.2782
  29. Liliweri, A. (2007). Makna Budaya dalam Komunikasi Antar Budaya. Yogyakarta: LKiS.
  30. Lins, S. L. B., de Lima, T. J. S., de Souza, L. E. C., Lima-Nunes, A., & Camino, L. (2017). Racial Prejudice and Social Values: How I Perceive Others and Myself. Psico-USF, 22(2), 309–321. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712017220210
  31. Malenica, K., Kovacevic, V., & Kardum, G. (2019). Impact of Religious Self-Identification and Church Attendance on Social Distance toward Muslims. Religions, 10(4), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10040276
  32. Mar’at. (1982). Sikap Manusia Perubahan serta Pengukuran. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.
  33. Matusitz, J. (2012). Relationship between Knowledge, Stereotyping, and Prejudice in Interethnic Communication. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 10(1), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2012.10.008
  34. McKay, R., & Whitehouse, H. (2015). Religion and Morality. Psychological Bulletin, 141(2), 447–473. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038455
  35. Mmahi, O. P., & Ojo, F. E. (2018). Religious Dogmatism, Prejudice and Conflict in Nigeria. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, 47, 34–39.
  36. Moulin, D. (2016). Reported Experiences of Anti-Christian Prejudice among Christian Adolescents in England. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 31(2), 223–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2016.1152679
  37. Mulyana, D. (2001). Nuansa-Nuansa Komunikasi: Meneropong Politik dan Budaya Komunikasi Masyarakat Kontemporer. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
  38. Mulyana, D. (2017). Ilmu Komunikasi: Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
  39. Murdianto. (2018). Stereotipe, Prasangka dan Resistensinya (Studi Kasus pada Etnis Madura dan Tionghoa di Indonesia). QALAMUNA - Jurnal Pendidikan, Sosial, Dan Agama, (Vol 10 No 2 (2018): Qalamuna-Jurnal Pendidikan, Sosial, dan Agama), 137–160.
  40. Nashori, F., & Nurjannah. (2015). Prasangka Sosial Terhadap Umat Kristiani pada Muslim Minoritas yang Tinggal di Indonesia Timur. Ilmiah Psikologi Terapan, 03(02), 383–400. https://doi.org/10.24961/j.tek.ind.pert.2017.27.2.141
  41. Nurjanah, S., Atmaja, H. T., & Saraswati, U. (2017). Penanaman Nilai-Nilai Multikulturalisme dalam Pembelajaran Sejarah Sub Materi Pokok Indonesia Zaman Hindu-Buddha pada Siswa Kelas X Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Purbalingga Tahun Ajaran 2016/2017. Indonesian Journal of History Education, 5(2), 68–75.
  42. Pereira, C., Vala, J., & Costa-Lopes, R. (2010). From Prejudice to Discrimination: The Legitimizing Role of Perceived Threat in Discrimination Against Immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1231–1250. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.718
  43. Permata, S. T., Siahainenia, R., & Sampoerno. (2015). Umat Islam Dalam Memaknai Isu Kristenisasi di Salatiga (Suatu Analisis Persepsi Berdasarkan PErspektif Teori Cooridnated Management of Meaning). Cakrawala: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial, 4(2), 287–318.
  44. Platow, M. J., Van Rooy, D., Augoustinos, M., Spears, R., Bar-Tal, D., & Grace, D. M. (2019). Prejudice is about Collective Values, not a Biased Psychological System. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 48(1), 16–22.
  45. Priyadi, S. (2003). Beberapa Karakter Orang Banyumas. Bahasan Dan Seni, 31(1), 14–36.
  46. Priyadi, S. (2007). Cablaka Sebagai Inti Model Karakter Manusia Banyumas. DIKSI, 14(1), 11–18.
  47. Purwasito, A. (2015). Komunikasi Multikultural. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  48. Rahayu, M. (2017). Keragaman di Indonesia dan Politik Pengakuan (Suatu Tinjauan Kristis). Jurnal Pemikiran Sosiologi, 4(2), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.22146/jps.v4i2.28577
  49. Rosyada, D. (2014). Pendidikan Multikultural Di Indonesia Sebuah Pandangan Konsepsional. SOSIO DIDAKTIKA: Social Science Education Journal, 1(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.15408/sd.v1i1.1200
  50. Sa’dudin, I., Chamadi, M. R., Munasib, Achmad, F., & Zayyadi, A. (2019). Interaksi Sosial Komunitas Islam Aboge Dengan Masyarakat Desa Cikakak Kecamatan Wangon Kabupaten Banyumas. Jurnal Tarbiyatuna, 10(1), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.31603/tarbiyatuna.v10i1.2308
  51. Salim HS, H., & Suhadi. (2007). Membangun Pluralisme dari Bawah. Yogyakarta: LKiS Pelangi Aksara.
  52. Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & Jain, N. C. (1981). Understanding Intercultural Communication. Belmont-California: A Division of Wadsworth Inc.
  53. Shaver, J. H., Troughton, G., Sibley, C. G., & Bulbulia, J. A. (2016). Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150209
  54. Smajić, A. (2008). Psychology of Religion and Intercultural Dialogue and Tolerance. Objavljeni Znanstveni Prispevek Na Konferenci, 423–435.
  55. Stewart, E., Edgell, P., & Delehanty, J. (2017). The Politics of Religious Prejudice and Tolerance for Cultural Others. The Sociological Quarterly, 59(1), 17–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380253.2017.1383144
  56. Streib, H., & Klein, C. (2014). Religious Styles Predict Interreligious Prejudice: A Study of German Adolescents with the Religious Schema Scale. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24, 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2013.808869
  57. Trianton, T. (2008). Nilai Pendidikan Karakter Berbasis Kearifan Lokal dalam Film Indie Banyumas. Animal Genetics, 39(5), 561–563. https://doi.org/10.30595/jkp.v2i1.650
  58. Widyaningsih, R. (2014). Bahasa Ngapak dan Mentalitas Orang Banyumas: Tinjauan dari Perspektif Filsafat Bahasa Hans-Georg Gadamer. Jurnal Ultima Humaniora, II(2), 186–200.
  59. Yilmaz, O., Karadöller, D. Z., & Sofuoglu, G. (2016). Analytic Thinking, Religion, and Prejudice. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 26(4), 360–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2016.1151117
  60. Zulkarnain, I. (2011). Hubungan Antarkomunitas Agama di Indonesia: Masalah dan Penanganannya. Kajian, 16(4), 682–691. https://doi.org/10.22212/kajian.v16i4.540

Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah
Institut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia
Collaborate with APDI (Asosiasi Profesi Dakwah Indonesia)
Jln. Pandawa No. 1, Pucangan, Kartasura, Central Java, Indonesia, 57168
Phone: +62271-781516
Website: http://iain-surakarta.ac.id/
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

ISSN: 2527-5704 (Print)
ISSN: 2527-5682 (Online)
DOI : 10.22515/balagh

This ejournal system and it's contents licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here