Dwi Anjaswati Putri Hastari* -  Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia
Istar Yuliadi -  Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia
Rini Setyowati -  Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia

Stress occurs while caring for the elderly due to several factors, namely the emotion regulation and spirituality. This study aims to examine the correlation between stress with emotion regulation and spirituality in caregivers of the elderly at Karangmojo 1 Health Center, Gunungkidul. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain data from 36 caregivers on the emotion regulation and spirituality as well as stress scale with Alpha Cronbach's reliability coefficient of 0.871, 0.921, and 0.905, respectively. The results showed that r = 0.485 and Sig. 0.012 (p <0.05). Therefore there is a correlation between stress, emotion regulation, and spirituality. This means that the higher the control of emotion and spiritual level, the lower the pressure. Furthermore, this research expects to provide input in the realm of psychology. For example, it can be used as a reference to help caregivers deal with stress by increasing their emotion regulation and spirituality skills.

Keywords : emotion regulation; spirituality; stress in caregiver of the elderly

  1. Aldwin, C. M., Sutton, K. J., Chiara, G., & Spiro-III, A. (1996). Age Differences in Stress, Coping, and Appraisal: Findings From the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Geronotology: Psychological Sciences, 51B(4), 179–188.
  2. Ardilla, D., & Wahyuni, S. E. (2012). Spiritualitas dan Stres Orangtua yang Mempunyai Anak Kelainan Kongenital di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan. Jurnal Keperawatan Klinis, 1(1), 48–53.
  3. Azwar, S. (2016). Reliabilitas dan Validitas (4 Ed). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  4. Bahrami, F. (2017). The Relationship Between Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Academic Buoyancy with The Role of Mediating Self-Handicapping in Students. Iranian Journal of Educational Sociology, 1(6), 114–124.
  5. Baldacchino, D., & Draper, P. (2001). Spiritual coping strategies: A review of the nursing research literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(6), 833–841.
  6. Baqutayan, S. M. S. (2015). Stress and coping mechanisms: a historical overview. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 479–488.
  7. Baruah, P., & Pandey, N. (2016). Spirituality as a Coping Strategy among Practitioners and Non Practitioners. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(2), 110–114.
  8. Bobbitt, S. A., Baugh, L. A., Andrew, G. H., Cook, J. L., Green, C. R., Pei, J. R., & Rasmussen, C. R. (2016). Caregiver needs and stress in caring for individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 55, 100–113.
  9. BPS. (2017). Banyak Lansia Tinggal dengan Anak, Mantu, dan Cucu. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from website:
  10. Branscum, A. Y. (2010). Stress and coping model for family caregivers of older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 1–106.
  11. Chen, H. (2016). A Theoretic Review of Emotion Regulation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 04(02), 147–153.
  12. Chen, Y., Peng, Y., Xu, H., & O’Brien, W. H. (2018). Age Differences in Stress and Coping: Problem-Focused Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Age and Positive Affect. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 86(4), 347–363.
  13. Deater-Deckard, K. D. (2004). Parenting Stress.
  14. Deater-Deckard, K., Li, M., & Bell, M. A. (2016). Multifaceted emotion regulation, stress, and affect in mothers of young children. Cognition and Emotion, 30(3), 444–457.
  15. DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale Development: Theory and Applications (4th Ed). Thousand Oaks, California, United States: SAGE Publications.
  16. Doré, B. P., Boccagno, C., Burr, D., Hubbard, A., Long, K., Weber, J., … Ochsner, K. N. (2017). Finding positive meaning in negative experiences engages ventral striatal and ventromedial prefrontal regions associated with reward valuation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(2), 235–244.
  17. Dyson, J., Cobb, M., & Forman, D. (1997). The Meaning of Spirituality: A Literature Review. Journal OfAdvanced Nursing, 26, 1183–1188.
  18. Elkins, D. N., L. James Hedstrom, Hughes, L. L., Leaf, J. A., & Saunders, C. (1988). Toward a Humanistic-Phenomenological Spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28(4), 5–18.
  19. Finlay-Jones, A. L., Rees, C. S., & Kane, R. T. (2015). Self-Compassion, emotion regulation and stress among australian psychologists: Testing an emotion regulation model of self-compassion using structural equation modeling. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0133481.
  20. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Stress, Positive Emotion, and Coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(4), 115–118.
  21. Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive Reappraisal Mediates the Stress-Reductive Effects of Mindfulness: An Upward Spiral Process. Mindfulness, 2(1), 59–67.
  22. Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291.
  23. Gumora, G., & Arsenio, W. F. (2002). Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and School Performance in Middle School Children. Journal of School Psychology, 40(5), 395– 413.
  24. Hartono, L. A. (2007). Stres & Stroke. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.
  25. Hendriani, W. (2018). Resiliensi Psikologis: Sebuah Pengantar. Jakarta Selatan: Kencana.
  26. Hervey, E. (2017). Culture, Spirituality, Self-Acceptance, and Relationships Among Latino Students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Family Studies, 1(1), 1–10.
  27. Ibad, M. R., Ahsan, & Lestari, R. (2015). Studi Fenomenologi Pengalaman Keluarga Sebagai Primary Caregiver Dalam Merawat Lansia Dengan Demensia Di Kabupaten Jombang. The Indonesian Journal of Health Science, 6(1), 40–51.
  28. Katana, M., Röcke, C., Spain, S. M., & Allemand, M. (2019). Emotion regulation, subjective well-being, and perceived stress in daily life of geriatric nurses. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1097), 1–11.
  29. King, R. B., & Chen, J. (2019). Emotions in Education: Asian Insights on the Role of Emotions in Learning and Teaching. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 28(4), 279–281.
  30. Knippenberg, R. J. M. van, Vugt, M. E. de, Ponds, R. W., Verhey, F. R. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2018). Emotional reactivity to daily life stress in spousal caregivers of people with dementia: An experience sampling study. PLoS ONE, 13(4), e0194118.
  31. Koerniawan, D., & Candrawulan, U. (2018). Hubungan Spiritualitas dengan Stres Lansia di Puskesmas Pakjo Palembang. Elisabeth Health Journal, 3(2), 93–100.
  32. Krok, D. (2008). The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11(7), 643 — 653.
  33. Krok, D. (2015). Religiousness, spirituality, and coping with stress among late adolescents: A meaning-making perspective. Journal of Adolescence, 45, 196–203.
  34. Kurasawa, S., Yoshimasu, K., Washio, M., Fukumoto, J., Takemura, S., Yokoi, K., … Miyashita, K. (2012). Factors influencing caregivers’ burden among family caregivers and institutionalization of in-home elderly people cared for by family caregivers. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 17(6), 474–483.
  35. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.
  36. Le, Y. K., Piedmont, R. L., & Wilkins, T. A. (2019). Spirituality, religiousness, personality as predictors of stress and resilience among middle- aged Vietnamese-Born American Catholics. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1–15.
  37. Lewis, E. J., Yoon, K. L., & Joormann, J. (2017). Emotion regulation and biological stress responding: associations with worry, rumination, and reappraisal. Cognition and Emotion, 1–13.
  38. Llanque, S., Savage, L., Rosenburg, N., BA, H., & Caserta, M. (2016). Concept Analysis: Alzheimer’s Caregiver Stress. Nursing Forum, 51(1), 21–31.
  39. Longacre, M. L., Valdmanis, V. G., Handorf, E. A., & Fang, C. Y. (2017). Work Impact and Emotional Stress Among Informal Caregivers for Older Adults. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 72(3), 522–531.
  40. Matud, M. P. (2004). Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Personality and Individual Difference, 37, 1401–1415.
  41. Mehta, K. K. (2005). Stress among family caregivers of older persons in Singapore. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 20(4), 319–334.
  42. Missesa, & Syam’ani. (2017). Pengalaman Keluarga Merawat Lansia Demensia Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Menteng. Jurnal Forum Kesehatan, 7(2), 65–76.
  43. Mok, E., Wong, F., & Wong, D. (2010). The meaning of spirituality and spiritual care among the Hong Kong Chinese terminally ill. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(2), 360–370.
  44. Monteiro, A. M. F., Santos, R. L., Kimura, N., Baptista, M. A. T., & Dourado, M. C. N. (2018). Coping strategies among caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease: a systematic review. Treands in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 40(3), 258–268.
  45. Moustafa, N. S. A., & Moustafa, M. S. A. (2018). Depression, anxiety, and stress among some elderly caregivers in Alexandria city, Egypt. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7(7), 570–579.
  46. Murdiyanto, & Gutomo, R. T. (2017). Peran Keluarga Dalam Mewujudkan Lanjut Usia Sejahtera. Media Informasi Penelitian Kesejahteraan Sosial, 41(1), 1–10.
  47. Naing, M. Z., May, S. Y., & Aung, M. H. (2020). Caregiver burden from caring for dependent elderly in Yangon, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Makara Journal of Health Research, 24(1), 13–20.
  48. Nam, Y., Kim, Y.-H., & Tam, K. K.-P. (2018). Effects of Emotion Suppression on Life Satisfaction in Americans and Chinese. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(1), 149 –160.
  49. Newman, L. L. (2004). Faith, spirituality, and religion: A model for understanding the differences. College Student Affairs Journal, 23(2), 102–110.
  50. Noonan, A. E., & Tennstedt, S. L. (1997). Meaning in caregiving and Its Contribution to Caregiver Well-Being. The Gerontologist, 37(6), 785–794.
  51. Oliveira, N. A. de, Souza, É. N., Luchesi, B. M., Inouye, K., & Pavarini, S. a C. I. (2017). Stress and optimism of elderlies who are caregivers for elderlies and live with children. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 70(4), 697–703.
  52. Özkan Tuncay, F., & Kars Fertelli, T. (2019). Effects of the caregiver burden perceived by caregivers of patients with neurological disorders on caregiver wellbeing and caregiver stress. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 55(4), 697–702.
  53. Padmiati, E., & Diyanayati, K. (2015). Pelayanan Sosial Lanjut Usia dalam Keluarga. Jurnal PKS, 14(3), 329–342.
  54. Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2008). Human Development (10th Ed). New York: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
  55. Pascual, A., Conejero, S., & Etxebarria, I. (2016). Coping strategies and emotion regulation in adolescents: Adequacy and gender differences. Ansiedad y Estrés, 22(1), 1–4.
  56. Peetoom, K. K. B., Lexis, M. A. S., Joore, M., Dirksen, C. D., & De Witte, L. P. (2016). The perceived burden of informal caregivers of independently living elderly and their ideas about possible solutions. A mixed methods approach. Technology and Disability, 28(1–2), 19–29.
  57. Peters, B. J., Overall, N. C., & Jamieson, J. P. (2014). Physiological and cognitive consequences of suppressing and expressing emotion in dyadic interactions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94, 100–107.
  58. Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2004). Associations of caregiver stressors and uplifts with subjective well-being and depressive mood: a meta-analytic comparison. Aging & Mental Health, 8(5), 438–449.
  59. Popli, U. K., & Panday, R. (2018). Caregivers Burden of Hospitalized Elderly. Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, 07(05), 1000483.
  60. Powers, D. V, Cramer, R. J., & Grubka, J. M. (2007). Spirituality, Life Stress, and Affective Well-Being. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(3), 235–243.
  61. Putri, Y. S. E. (2013). Prediktor Beban Merawat Dan Tingkat Depresi Caregiver Dalam Merawat Lanjut Usia Dengan Demensia Di Masyarakat. Jurnal Ners, 8(1), 88–97.
  62. Ratnasari, S., & Suleeman, J. (2017). Perbedaan Regulasi Emosi Perempuan dan Laki-Laki di Perguruan Tinggi. Jurnal Psikologi Sosial, 15(1), 35–46.
  63. Ruiz-Robledillo, N., & Moya-Albiol, L. (2013). Self-reported health and cortisol awakening response in parents of people with asperger syndrome: The role of trait anger and anxiety, coping and burden. Psychology and Health, 28(11), 1246–1264.
  64. Sabzwari, S., Badini, A., Fatmi, Z., & Shah, S. (2016). Burden and associated factors for caregivers of the elderly in a developing country. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 22(6), 394–403.
  65. Saifuddin, A. (2019). Psikologi Agama: Implementasi Psikologi untuk Memahami Perilaku Beragama. Jakarta: Kencana.
  66. Saifuddin, A. (2020). Penyusunan Skala Psikologi. Jakarta: Kencana.
  67. Santrock, J. W. (2011). Developmental Psychology. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
  68. Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2016). Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions (9th Ed). New Jersey, United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  69. Schoenmakers, B., Buntinx, F., & Delepeleire, J. (2010). Factors determining the impact of care-giving on caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: A systematic literature review. Maturitas, 66(2), 191–200.
  70. Schulz, R., & Sherwood, P. R. (2008). Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 108(9 (Supplement)), 23–27.
  71. Sharif, S. P., & Ong, F. S. (2019). Education Moderates the Relationship Between Spirituality with Quality of Life and Stress Among Malay Muslim Women with Breast Cancer. Journal of Religion and Health, 58(4), 1060–1071.
  72. Shen, S., Wan, Y., Xie, Y., Chen, Z., & Li, F. (2019). Care Stress Experienced by Caregivers of Elderly Individuals With Disabilities and the Coping Strategies Utilized: A Survey Study in the City of Nanjing, China. Journal of Family Issues, 40(10), 1396 –1414.
  73. Tamdee, D., Tamdee, P., Greiner, C., Boonchiang, W., Okamoto, N., & Isowa, T. (2019). Conditions of caring for the elderly and family caregiver stress in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Journal of Health Research, 33(2), 138–150. ©
  74. Tang, Y. (2009). Social Support of Elderly Caregivers. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(8), 81–84.
  75. Thompson, R. A. (1991). Emotional Regulation and Emotional Development. Educational Psychology Review, 3(4), 269–307.
  76. Tuck, I., Alleyne, R., & Thinganjana, W. (2006). Spirituality and Stress Management in Healthy Adults. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 24(4), 245–253.
  77. Wade, C., Garry, M., & Tavris, C. (2013). Psychology (11th Ed). London, United Kingdom: Pearson.
  78. Wang, M., & Saudino, K. J. (2011). Emotion Regulation and Stress. Journal of Adult Development, 18(2), 95–103.
  79. Widyakusuma, N. (2013). Peran Pendamping Dalam Program Pendampingan Dan Perawatan Sosial Lanjut Usia Di Lingkungan Keluarga (Home Care). Informasi, 18(02), 211–224.
  80. Widyastuti, R. H., Sahar, J., & Permatasari, H. (2011). Pengalaman Keluarga Merawat Lansia dengan Demensia. Jurnal Ners Indonesia, 1(2), 49–57.
  81. Yadav, R., & Khanna, A. (2014). Impact of Spirituality on Stress: With the Special Reference of Engineering Students of Indian Institute of Technology Radha. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(25), 29–35.
  82. Yeh, P. M., Wierenga, M. E., & Yuan, S. C. (2009). Influences of psychological well-being, quality of caregiver-patient relationship, and family support on the health of family caregivers for cancer patients in Taiwan. Asian Nursing Research, 3(4), 154–166.
  83. Yigitalp, G., Gumus, F., Surucu, H., & Evinc, E. (2017). Predictors of caregiver burden in primary caregivers of chronic patients. International Journal of Caring, 10(3), 1168–1177.
  84. Yun, K., Kim, S., & Awasu, C. R. (2019). Stress and impact of spirituality as a mediator of coping methods among social work college students. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 29(1), 125–136.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah
Institut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia
Collaborate with APDI (Asosiasi Profesi Dakwah Indonesia)
Jln. Pandawa No. 1, Pucangan, Kartasura, Central Java, Indonesia, 57168
Phone: +62271-781516
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

ISSN: 2527-5704 (Print)
ISSN: 2527-5682 (Online)
DOI : 10.22515/balagh

This ejournal system and it's contents licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here