FORGIVENESS, SELF-ESTEEM, AND RESILIENCE IN ADULT VICTIMS OF BULLYING

Dinu Hafidh Muvariz -  Universitas Islam Indonesia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Hanifah Nur Fitriani -  Universitas Islam Indonesia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Indah Nisrina -  Universitas Islam Indonesia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Fuad Nashori* -  Universitas Islam Indonesia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Apart from occurring in children and adolescents, bullying also occurs in adult groups. The impact on adults includes psychological, physical, social, and economic dimensions. The main impact that often affects victims of adult bullying is emotional problem. Forgiveness and self-esteem are indicated to be two variables that influence resilience in victims of adult bullying. This study aimed to determine the effect of forgiveness and self-esteem on resilience in 94 adults who are victims of bullying. The analysis was performed using regression analysis. The result obtained in this study was that forgiveness and self-esteem affect 49.5% (R Square = 0.495, Sig. = 0.000) of the resilience of bullying victims. Thus, forgiveness and self-esteem are essential keys to increase the resilience of victims of bullying so that they are not prone to experiencing mental disorders.

Keywords : adult victim of bullying; forgiveness; resilience; self-esteem

  1. Aalsma, M. C., & Brown, J. R. (2008). What Is Bullying? Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(2), 101–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.001
  2. Azwar, S. (2016). Reliabilitas dan Validitas (4 Ed). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  3. Balgiu, B. A. (2017). Self-esteem, Personality, and Resilience: Study of A Students Emerging Adults Group. Journal of Educational Sciences & Psychology, VII (LXIX)(1), 93–99.
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward A Unifying Theory Of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
  5. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, USA: W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.
  6. Brush, B. L., McGee, E. M., Cavanagh, B., & Woodward, M. (2001). Forgiveness: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 19(1), 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/089801010101900104
  7. Burnette, J. L., Davisson, E. K., Finkel, E. J., Tongeren, D. R. Van, Hui, C. M., & Hoyle, R. H. (2014). Self-Control and Forgiveness: A Meta-Analytic Review. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(4), 443–450. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550613502991
  8. Cast, A. D., & Burke, P. J. (2002). A Theory of Self-Esteem. Social Forces, 80(3), 1041–1068. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2002.0003
  9. Chaudhary, H., Jyoti, & Chaudhary, S. (2014). Positive Emotions, Resilience, Gratitude, and Forgiveness: Role of Positive Psychology in the 21st Century. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 528–530.
  10. Chen, H. (2016). A Theoretic Review of Emotion Regulation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 04(02), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.42020
  11. Chung, J. O. K., Lam, K. K. W., Ho, K. Y., Cheung, A. T., Ho, L. L. K., Gibson, F., & Li, W. H. C. (2018). Relationships Among Resilience, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(13–14), 2396–2405. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318800159
  12. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of A New Resilience Scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 76–82. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.10113
  13. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Company.
  14. Copeland, W. E., Wolke, D., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2013). Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(4), 419–426. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.504
  15. Daryanti, E. T., Yuwono, D., & Sugiharto, P. (2020). Forgivingness and Subjective Well-Being of the Female Prisoners. Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling, 9(134), 79–85. https://doi.org/10.15294 /junk.v9i1.29126
  16. Djamahar, R., Dewahrani, Y., R., & Octaviani, R. (2020). Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Negative Emotional State with Academic Procrastination in Final Level Students. Indonesian Journal of Biology Education, 3(1), 6–12. https://doi.org/10.31002/ijobe.v3i1.2290
  17. Egan, L. A., & Todorov, N. (2009). Forgiveness as a Coping Strategy to Allow School Students to Deal With the Effects of Being Bullied: Theoretical and Empirical Discussion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(2), 198–222. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2009.28.2.198
  18. Gençoğlu, C., Şahin, E., & Topkaya, N. (2018). General Self-Efficacy and Forgiveness of Self, Others, and Situations as Predictors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 18(3), 605–626. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2018.3.0128
  19. Griffin, B. J., Worthington Jr., E. L., Greer, C. L., Lin, Y., Davis, D. E., & Hook, J. N. (2015). Efficacy of a Self-Forgiveness Workbook: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Interpersonal Offenders. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(2), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000060
  20. Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion Regulation: Affective, Cognitive, and Social Consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1017.S0048577201393198
  21. Habibi, M. M., & Hidayati, F. (2018). Hubungan Antara Pemaafan Diri Sendiri, Pemaafan Orang Lain, Dan Pemaafan Situasi Dengan Resiliensi Pada Mahasiswa Baru (Studi Korelasi Pada Mahasiswa Baru Universitas Diponegoro Semarang). Empati, 6(2), 62–69.
  22. Hatta, M. (2018). Tindakan Perundungan (Bullying) Dalam Dunia Pendidikan Ditinjau Berdasarkan Hukum Pidana Islam. MIQOT: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman, 41(2), 280–301. https://doi.org/10.30821/miqot.v41i2.488
  23. Henriksen, I. O. (2016). Self-Esteem as a Resilience Factor for Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Attention Problems: Evidence from A Clinical Population of Adolescents. Graduate Thesis in Medicine NTNU, 1–15.
  24. Henriksen, I. O., Ranøyen, I., Indredavik, M. S., & Stenseng, F. (2017). The Role of Self-esteem in the Development of Psychiatric Problems: A Three-year Prospective Study in A Clinical Sample of Adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 11(68), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-017-0207-y
  25. Herrman, H., Stewart, D. E., Diaz-Granados, N., D, E. L. B., Jackson, B., & Yuen, T. (2011). What Is Resilience? The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(5), 258–265.
  26. Hidayati, N., & Rahayuningsih, I. (2014). Bentuk Dan Dampak Kekerasan Di Tempat Kerja (Workplace Bullying) Pada Buruh Pabrik Di Gresik. Jurnal Psikosains, 9(2), 125–139.
  27. Jaufalaily, N., & Himam, F. (2017). Resilience as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Forgiveness and Happiness Among College Student. Anima Indonesian Psychological Journal, 32(3), 121–127. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v32i3.626
  28. Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2017). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues (9th Ed). Australia: Cengage Learning.
  29. Karatas, Z., & Cakar, F. S. (2011). Self-Esteem and Hopelessness, and Resiliency: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents in Turkey. International Education Studies, 4(4), 84–91. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v4n4p84
  30. Karduz, F. F. A., & Saricam, H. (2018). The Relationships between Positivity, Forgiveness, Happiness, and Revenge. Revista Românească Pentru Educaţie Multidimensională, 10(4), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.18662/rrem/68 The
  31. Kim, H. K., & Lee, M. (2014). Effectiveness of Forgiveness Therapy on Resilience, Self-esteem, and Spirituality of Wives of Alcoholics. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 44(3), 237–247. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2014.44.3.237
  32. Kirmani, M. N. (2015). Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Subjective-well-being Among College Going Students. International Journal Of Public Mental Health And Neurosciences, 2(2), 1–10.
  33. KJ, L. (2018). Forgiveness: Definitions, Perspectives, Contexts, and Correlates. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 08(03), 1000342. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0487.1000342
  34. Kumar, A., & Dixit, V. (2014). Forgiveness, Gratitude, and Resilience Among Indian Youth. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 5(12), 1414–1419.
  35. Kurniawan, B., Neviyarni, N., & Solfema, S. (2018). The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Resilience of Adolescents who Living in Orphanages. International Journal of Research in Counseling and Education, 1(1), 47–52. https://doi.org/10.24036/0054za0002
  36. Kwek, A., Bui, H. T., Rynne, J., & So, K. K. F. (2013). The Impacts of Self-Esteem and Resilience on Academic Performance: An Investigation of Domestic and International Hospitality and Tourism Undergraduate Students. Journal of Hospitality, 23, 110–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/10963758.2013.826946
  37. Marks, M. J., Trafimow, D., Busche, L. K., & Oates, K. N. (2013). A Function of Forgiveness: Exploring the Relationship Between Negative Mood and Forgiving. SAGE Open, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244013507267
  38. Mary, E. M., & Patra, S. (2016). Relationship between Forgiveness, Gratitude, and Resilience among the Adolescents. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 63–68.
  39. McCullough, M. E. (2001). Forgiveness: Who Does It and How Do They Do It? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 194–197. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00147
  40. Min, J. A., Lee, N. Bin, Lee, C. U., Lee, C., & Chae, J. H. (2012). Low Trait Anxiety, High Resilience, and Their Interaction as Possible Predictors for Treatment Response in Patients With Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 137(1–3), 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.026
  41. Nagra, G. S., Lin, A., & Upthegrove, R. (2016). What Bridges the Gap Between Self-harm and Suicidality? The Role of Forgiveness, Resilience, and Attachment. Psychiatry Research, 241, 78–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.103
  42. Najam-us-Sahar, & Muzaffar, N. (2017). Role of Family System, Positive Emotions, and Resilience in Social Adjustment among Pakistani Adolescents. Journal of Educational, Health, and Community Psychology, 6(2), 46–58.
  43. Nashori, F. (2015). Psikologi Pemaafan. Yogyakarta: Safiria Insania Press.
  44. Prasetyo, A. B. E. (2014). Bullying di Sekolah dan Dampaknya bagi Masa Depan Anak. El-Tarbawi, 4(1), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.20885/tarbawi.vol4.iss1.art2
  45. Reivich, K., & Shatté, A. (2002). The Resilience Factor: 7 Essential Skills for Overcoming Life’s Inevitable Obstacles. New York, New York, United States: Broadway Books.
  46. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  47. Saffarinia, M., Mohammadi, N., & Afshar, H. (2016). The Role of Interpersonal Forgiveness in Resilience and Severity of Pain in Chronic Pain Patients. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 18(4), 212–219.
  48. Sagone, E., & Caroli, M. E. De. (2013). Relationships between Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Thinking Styles in Italian Middle Adolescents. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92, 838 – 845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.763
  49. Saifuddin, A. (2019). Penelitian Eksperimen Dalam Psikologi. Jakarta: Kencana.
  50. Saifuddin, A. (2020). Penyusunan Skala Psikologi. Jakarta: Kencana.
  51. Saputro, I., & Nashori, F. (2017). Resiliensi Mahasiswa Ditinjau dari Pemaafan dan Sifat Kepribadian Agreeableness. Jurnal Psikologi Islam, 4(2), 171–180.
  52. Schmitt, D. P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 Nations: Exploring the Universal and Culture-Specific Features of Global Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(4), 623–642. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.4.623
  53. Septarianda, E., Malay, M. N., & Ulfah, K. (2020). Hubungan Forgiveness dengan Subjective Well-Being pada Remaja di Panti Asuhan. Jurnal Psikologi Malahayati, 2(1), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.33024/jpm.v2i1.2488
  54. Sharil, H., Abdullah, L. I. M., Rushdan, M., Jailani, M., & Mansor, S. (2018). Forgiveness and Resilience Among Staff in the Government Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 4(5), 1–5.
  55. Smith, P. K. (2016). Bullying: Definition, Types, Causes, Consequences, and Intervention. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(9), 519–532. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12266
  56. Soni, P. (2015). A Study on the Relationship Between Resilience and Forgiveness. Indian Journal of Mental Health(IJMH), 3(1), 57–61. https://doi.org/10.30877/ijmh.3.1.2016.57-61
  57. Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., Panter-Brick, C., & Yehuda, R. (2014). Resilience Definitions, Theory, and Challenges: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.25338
  58. Sudirman, S. A., Suud, F. M., Rouzi, K. S., & Sari, D. P. (2019). Forgiveness and Happiness Through Resilience. Al-Qalb: Jurnal Psikologi Islam, 10(2), 113–132.
  59. Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., … Roberts, D. E. (2005). Dispositional Forgiveness of Self, Others, and Situations. Journal of Personality, 73(2), 314–360. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00311.x
  60. Toussaint, L., & Friedman, P. (2008). Forgiveness, Gratitude, and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(6), 635–654. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
  61. Veselka, Z., Geckova, A. M., Orosova, O., Gajdosova, B., van Dijk, J. P., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2009). Self-esteem and Resilience: The Connection with Risky Behavior Among Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 34(3), 287–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.005
  62. Wade, N. G., Hoyt, W. T., Kidwell, J. E. M., & Worthington, E. L. (2014). Efficacy of Psychotherapeutic Interventions to Promote Forgiveness: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 154–170. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035268
  63. Watson, H., Rapee, R., & Todorov, N. (2015). Forgiveness Reduces Anger in a School Bullying Context. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(11), 1642–1657. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515589931
  64. Wolke, D., & Lereya, S. T. (2015). Long-term Effects of Bullying. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 100, 879–885. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306667
  65. Woods, S., Wolke, D., Nowickic, S., & Hall, L. (2009). Emotion Recognition Abilities and Empathy of Victims of Bullying. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 307–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.11.002
  66. Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Toussaint, L. L., Nonterah, C. W., Utsey, S. O., & Garthe, R. C. (2016). Forgiveness as A Catalyst for Psychological, Physical, and Spiritual Resilience in Disasters and Crises. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 44, pp. 152–165. https://doi.org/10.1177/009164711604400206
  67. Worthington Jr, E. L., & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness Is An Emotion-Focused Coping Strategy That Can Reduce Health Risks And Promote Health Resilience: Theory, Review, And Hypothesis. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 385–405. https://doi.org/10.1080/0887044042000196674
  68. Wulandari, I., & Megawati, F. E. (2020). The Role of Forgiveness on Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents: A Review. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 99–103. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200120.022
  69. Zhang, C. (2017). Forgiveness Among College Students with Past Bullying Victimization Experiences. Dissertation Boston University, 1–119.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

al-Balagh : Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi
Published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Dakwah
Institut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia
Collaborate with APDI (Asosiasi Profesi Dakwah Indonesia)
Jln. Pandawa No. 1, Pucangan, Kartasura, Central Java, Indonesia, 57168
Phone: +62271-781516
Website: http://iain-surakarta.ac.id/
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

ISSN: 2527-5704 (Print)
ISSN: 2527-5682 (Online)
DOI : 10.22515/balagh

This ejournal system and it's contents licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here